Upon this Rock
said to them, “But who do you say that I am?” Simon Peter said in reply, “You
the Messiah, the Son of the living God.” Jesus said to him in reply, “Blessed are you,
Simon son of Jonah. For flesh and blood has not revealed this to you, but my heavenly
Father. And so I say to you, you are Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church,
and the gates of the netherworld shall not prevail against it. I will give you the keys to the
kingdom of heaven. Whatever you bind on earth shall be bound in heaven; and whatever
you loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven.”
Matthew 16, 16-19
"The Apostolic Constitution, Benedictus Deus, of Pope Benedict Xll"
2 (Speaks ex-cathedra)
"with apostolic authority"
3 (We pronounce, declare, and define)
"define the following"
4 (That doctrine concerning faith and morals)
Pope Benedict declares ex-cathedra that each soul will be particularly judged immediately after death
according to his or her deeds before the general day of judgment.
5 (Must be held by the whole church)
"which is to remain in force forever"
Go, say to this steward,
to Shebna the palace administrator:
What are you doing here and who gave you permission
to cut out a grave for yourself here,
hewing your grave on the height
and chiseling your resting place in the rock?
“Beware, the Lord is about to take firm hold of you
and hurl you away, you mighty man.
He will roll you up tightly like a ball
and throw you into a large country.
There you will die
and there the chariots you were so proud of
will become a disgrace to your master’s house.
I will depose you from your office,
and you will be ousted from your position.
with your robe and fasten your sash around him and hand your authority over to
him. He will be a father to those who live in Jerusalem and to the people of Judah. I
will place on his shoulder the key to the house of David; what he opens no one can
shut, and what he shuts no one can open. I will drive him like a peg into a firm
Isaiah 22, 15-23
Behold, the virgin shall conceive and bear a Son,
and shall call His name Immanuel.
son of Amoz went to him and said, “This is what the Lord says: Put your house in
order, because you are going to die; you will not recover.” Hezekiah turned his face to the wall and prayed to the Lord, “Remember, Lord, how I have walked before you
faithfully and with wholehearted devotion and have done what is good in your
eyes.” And Hezekiah wept bitterly. Before Isaiah had left the middle court, the word
of the Lord came to him: “Go back and tell Hezekiah, the ruler of my people, ‘This
is what the Lord, the God of your father David, says: I have heard your prayer and
seen your tears; I will heal you. On the third day from now you will go up to the
temple of the Lord.
2 Kings 20, 1-5
at Corinth But if any disobey the words spoken by him through us, let them know
that they will involve themselves in transgression and in no small danger.”
St. (Pope) Clement of Rome
1st Epistle to the Corinthians, 1,59:1
(c. A.D. 96)
builds the Church, and to him that he entrusts the sheep to feed. And although he
assigns a like power to all the apostles, yet he founded a single Chair, thus
establishing by his own authority the source and hallmark of the (Church’s)
oneness. No doubt the others were all that Peter was, but a primacy is given to Peter,
and it is (thus) made clear that there is but one flock which is to be fed by all the
apostles in common accord. If a man does not hold fast to this oneness of Peter, does
he imagine that he still holds the faith? If he deserts the Chair of Peter upon whom
the Church was built, has he still confidence that he is in the Church? This unity
firmly should we hold and maintain, especially we bishops, presiding in the Church,
in order that we may approve the episcopate itself to be the one and undivided.”
St. Cyprian of Carthage
The Unity of the Church, 4-5
schismatic wolves might not rob and plunder by stealth nor the heretical dogs bark
madly in the rapid fury nor the very serpent, the devil, discharge his blasphemous
venom. So it seems to us right and altogether fitting that priests of the Lord
from each and every province should report to their head, that is, to the See of Peter,
Council of Sardica, To Pope Julius
conferred on Peter, in which the prince of all the Apostles, Peter, sat…in which Chair
unity should be preserved by all, so that he should now be a schismatic and a sinner
who should set up another Chair against that unique one.”
St. Optatus of Mileve
The Schism of Donatists, 2:2-3
(c. A.D. 367)
fact it has been known in all ages, that the holy and most blessed Peter, prince and
head of the apostles, pillar of the faith, and foundation of the Catholic Church,
received the keys of the kingdom from our Lord Jesus Christ, the Saviour and
Redeemer of the human race, and that to him was given the power of loosing and
binding sins: Our holy and most blessed Pope Celestine the bishop is according to
due order his successor and holds his place…Accordingly the decision of all
churches is firm, for the priests of the eastern and western churches are present
Wherefore Nestorius knows that he is alienated from the communion of the priests
of the Catholic Church.”
Council of Ephesus, Session III
through us, and through this present most holy synod together with the thrice
blessed and all-glorious Peter the Apostle, who is the rock and foundation of the
Catholic Church, and the foundation of the orthodox faith, hath stripped him of the
episcopate, and hath alienated from him all hieratic worthiness. Therefore let this
most holy and great synod sentence the before mentioned Dioscorus to the
Council of Chalcedon, Session III